Urban Plan in 1930s in Turkey


Abstract


After the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, urbanization became one of the main issues on the national agenda. Between 1923 and 1940, plans were made to establish 117 towns in Anatolia and Rumeria. After planning the city that was demolished during the War of Independence, in order to pursue the Great Depression of 1929, Etatism and Populism principles became the basis of policy-oriented urban spatial development. The purpose of this study was to study the 1935 Izmit Urban Plan (designed by Hermann Jansen) in the context of urban planning methods and the political structure of the Republic of Turkey in the 1930s. From this perspective, the paper is divided into two main parts. In the first part, I will discuss the popular urbanization methods in Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries and their significance in the practice of urban planning in Turkey. In the second part, in addition to analyzing the basic design and planning principles of the plan, I will also discuss the importance of the Izmit City Plan during this period. In addition, I have carefully studied the similarities and differences between the plan and the European urbanism model.


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